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July 5, 2010 / ergonomic

Entornos de aprendizaje-distribuido // Making of TED (1 parte)

[Snapshot del video Introducing Internet Time Alliance]

➔ Agradecemos & recomendamos el texto (en inglés)
que Laura Vidal publica en la flash-revista: Popular Anthropology:

Invisible Learning: Another Look inside formal education

En respuesta al interés por conocer las fuentes y recursos utilizados en la conferencia sobre ‘Aprendizaje Invisible’ (TED) {ver video}, compartiremos dos post con los contenidos y extractos de estudios referidos. Espero resulte de utilidad:

Rifkin (2010) en The Chronicle of Higher Education (*):

La escuela como laboratorio: “Classrooms could become laboratories for preparing young people for biosphere consciousness”; “collaborative learning transforms the classroom into a laboratory”.

Aprendizaje horizontal: “The traditional top-down approach to teaching is giving way to a distributed and collaborative educational experience designed to install a sense of the shared nature of knowledge. Intelligence, in the new way of thinking, is not something one inherits or a resource one accumulates, but, rather, an experience that is shared among people”.

Entornos de aprendizaje-distribuido: “Such trends are taking education beyond the confines of the classroom to a global learning environment in cyberspace”.

La caída del muro (de las escuelas): “The global extension of learning environments in cyberspace is being matched by the local extension of learning environments in school neighborhoods. The walls separating classrooms and communities are breaking down”.

Choque de paradigmas educativos: “Sharing knowledge is considered cheating”. “In distributed and collaborative learning environments, the process becomes as important as the product. The old hierarchical model of learning is replaced by network ways of organizing knowledge”.

Políticas públicas y currículums flexibles: “Our schools and universities should invest in distributed and collaborative learning experiences—curricula emphasizing the interconnectedness of life”.

OECD (2008) New Millennium Learners (*):

SubuTIClización (ver Cuban, pdf): “The availability of technological infrastructure (as measured by the degree of broadband penetration) makes inevitable the discussion about the under-utilisation of technologies in the classroom”.

Sala de clases, el lugar equivocado: “Digital technologies are so important in their daily lives – as they are also in the world of adults, particularly at work – except when they are in classrooms, where even mobile phones are usually banned” (ver imagen).

¿Se acabó la brecha digital?: “The issue of access to technology seems to be nearly irrelevant in most OECD countries”;  “A second digital divide emerges: it is no longer about access, but about differences in use”.

Capital Cultural: “In the long run, the existing differences between those who have and those who don’t have the right cultural capital to take advantage of the potential of technologies will increase”.

Impactos medibles resultan difusos (una vez más): “There is an urgent need to know more about the effects of technologies on learners […] the most appealing domains, i.e., those on which technology could have positive impact have not been documented by empirical research”; “No conclusive evidence about the effects of technology upon academic achievement”; “Despite thousands of studies about the impact of technology use on student attainment, it is difficult to measure and remains reasonably open to debate”. “There is no conclusive evidence about the benefits of technology in school performance”.

Impactos invisibles: “How computers are affecting skill learning, cognition and the skills necessary for reasoning, problem solving, reading and creativity”; “Constructing mental models and internalizing concepts from using different computer applications and the Internet also influences how young people think, approach tasks and socialize”.

Métodos de medición equivocados (una vez más): “Most of the criticism in regard to assessing the impact of technology on cognitive skills is connected with taking measurements immediately after practicing, while the cumulative effect of digital media is not sufficiently examined”.

Uso de las TIC en entornos informales: “The impact of computer availability at home upon academic attainment is clearly higher, in most countries”.

Políticas públicas y formación docente: “An urgent need for policy recommendations both for teacher training institutions and for governments in order to maximise the role that initial teacher training can play in offering a vision and a personal experience of a technology-enhanced education”.

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Ananiadou & Claro (2009). 21st century skills & competences for new millennium learners in OECD countries (*):

Estrechando los ‘universos paralelos’: “21st century skills movement argue for the need for reforms in schools and education to respond to the social and economic needs of students and society in the 21st century.”

Alfabetismos del siglo XXI:

  • “ An innovative literacy concept related to the capacity of students to apply knowledge and skills [… to] solve and interpret problems in a variety of situations, and its relevance to lifelong learning, […] curricular and cross-curricular competencies”.
  • ICT functional skills […,] ICT skills for learning [… and] 21st century skills which bring together skills considered necessary in the knowledge society but where the use of ICT is not a necessary condition”.
  • “Those skills and competencies young people will be required to have in order to be effective workers and citizens in the knowledge society of the 21st century.”
  • “The primary curriculum provides for the teaching of these skills across subjects. It particularly stresses the importance of developing generic skills and abilities that help the child to transfer learning to other curriculum areas, to future learning situations and to his or her life experience’.

Todos de acuerdo, pero nadie saba cómo empezar (ni evaluar):

  • “When it comes to the assessment of 21st century skills the first point to note is that very few countries claim not to have any assessment policies or guidelines in place for these skills. However, a closer look at the explanations provided reveal that in fact there is no specific assessment of these skills”.
  • “… a lot of cross-curricular objectives are by nature very difficult to assess“.
  • “There are virtually no clear (formative or summative) assessment policies for these skills. The only evaluation regarding their teaching is often left to external inspectors as part of their whole school audits”.

(*) Referencias bibliográficas:

  1. Rifkin, J. (2010, Mayo 30). Empathic Education: The Transformation of Learning in an Interconnected World. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
  2. OECD (2008). New Millennium Learners. Initial findings on the effects of digital technologies on school-age learners. OECD/CERI International Conference “Learning in the 21st Century: Research, Innovation and Policy”. Paris: OECD.
  3. Ananiadou, K., & Claro, M. (2009). 21st century skills and competences for new millennium learners in OECD countries.

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