Naciones digitalmente maduras
Hace unos días, justo antes del seminario de competencias digitales, encontré unos reportes recientemente elaborados por la OCDE y el Banco Mundial que se dieron a la tarea de entender cómo han sido incorporadas las TIC en los entornos de aprendizaje formal de los países nórdicos. Para ello se elaboró un reporte (estudio de caso) por país. El resultado es un conjunto de trabajos breves, consistentes y comparables entre sí.
Si bien hay que leerlos para poder tener una opinión al respecto aquí ofrecemos algunos de los extractos que nos parecieron más interesantes. El común denominador es la e-madurez (saber cómo y dónde adoptar las TIC).
Por último, y advirtiendo que no hay que caer en la tentación de buscar fórmulas de éxito ni simplificadas, hay algunos criterios que encontré de manera constante en estos trabajos.
• Cambio de foco en las políticas públicas (de las TIC a las competencias digitales).
• Cambio en la estrategia de implementación (de los gobiernos centrales a los gobiernos locales).
• Cambio integral (la TIC han incidido en la educación sólo cuando se generan mejoras transversales). Lo que aquí se denomina “systemic innovation”.
• Desarrollar y generar estímulos para la formación de docentes e-competentes.
Systemic innovation: “Any kind of dynamic, system-wide change that is intended to add value to the educational processes and outcomes”.
Bottom-Up: All decisions concerning technical equipment in schools and in-service training are taken at municipal and school level […]. In this policy document it was stated that all municipalities should have responsibility for the strategy for use of ICT in schools. This was also the starting point for a series of national ICT projects […] Government and its agencies provide services and resources up to the municipality boundary and the municipalities choose how learning and teaching take place to meet centrally set curriculum targets. […] Marketing is effectively viral and almost solely achieved by passing the message about “the material sharing community with free membership for teachers” by word of mouth, from teacher to teacher. […]Lektion.se is a good example of a successful and innovative bottom-up activity or service with great impact on the teachers in Sweden. […]Teachers are willing to share what have produced and what they know. […] Bottom-up developments have significant benefits, possibly including higher levels of engagement.
Confianza: “Parents typically feel very positive about their local schools while commonly believing that the wider system could be improved”.
Profesores competentes: “In 2005 the Agency for Schools and Centre for Flexible Learning was commissioned to address competence development for teachers, and to make digital learning resources more accessible to teachers”.
Incetivos: “Without incentives to drive adoption of content or its innovative development or use, change in existing practice is likely to be slow”.
Pedagogía como elemento clave: “Reinforcement of existing relationships, pedagogies and systems rather than re-casting and innovation in learning and teaching”.
Campos de innovación en las políticas finlandesas: Innovation in digital learning research and development; Innovation in digital Tools; Innovation in digital content; Innovation in teacher education & Innovation in gaming.
De las tecnologías a las personas: “They have marked a gradual transition from a focus on technological infrastructure, to a focus on broader issues of information and technological literacy, to an ongoing focus on community integration and everyday use.
Evolución de las acciones: “Shifts from an emphasis on technical infrastructure to workforce capacity […] shifts from a focus on curriculum to a focus on pedagogy. […] The state has also taken initiatives in in-service training of teachers with an emphasis on ICT pedagogy”.
(1) Providing digital infrastructure and teacher professional development with new technologies,
(2) Developing curricular materials and digital tools for teachers, to a current focus on,
(3) Digital resources as part of whole school reform and learning environments, with the aim of changing classroom pedagogy.
Decentralized & ’bottom-up’ innovation: “There is also evidence of a significant number of small/medium-sized, innovative projects funded by government and national agencies which, when combined with “bottom up” initiatives, have the potential to be a driver of change in schools”.
Profesores con postgrados: “A Masters degree is required for all teachers in compulsory schools”.
Políticas Públicas (Computadores > Entornos de Aprendizaje > Destrezas Digitales): “The first phase, from 1996 until 1999, was mainly concerned with the implementation ofcomputers into Norwegian schools. There was less interest in the educational context. In the next phase, from 2000 until 2003, the focus was more on whole school development with ICT and changing learning environments. The phase we are in now, from 2004 until 2008, places more emphasis on digital literacy to be acquired among students, and what learners do with technology, which opens future perspectives on technology and education”.
e-awareness: Du bestemmer (www.dubestemmer.no). “The slogan “You decide” for the campaign was the idea that it is each individual student’s responsibility to take the message to heart by making their own decisions and taking responsibility for the consequences”.
Ya no son (sólo) las TIC: “Policies have moved from a focus on computers, later towards a focus on internet connections, development of DLR and towards integration of ICT in the subject matters and making ICT an integral part of the daily school life”.
Bottom-Up: “Danish schools and teachers have freedom of method, which means that there are no national regulations on teaching methods”.