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June 12, 2009 / ergonomic

TIC fuera del(a) (j)aula y el aprendizaje accidental

industriallogicappliedtolearningHoy recomendamos un estudio realizado por el Centre for Education and Inclusion Research (CEIR) de la Sheffield Hallam University por solicitud del Department for Education and Skills (del gobierno británico).  Los resultados de esta investigación ofrecen interesantes pistas en relación al impacto de las TICs en el aprendizaje.

El estudio titulado “e-learning in Further Education: The Impact on Student Intermediate and End-point Outcomes” fue desarrollado por cuatro académicos (Finlayson, Maxwell, Caillau and Tomalin, 2006) y se basó en 6 casos de estudio (colegios en el Reino Unido). Los informantes fueron 70 miembros del staff (profesores y administrativos) así como focus groups en el que participaron 500 estudiantes. Esta información se complementó con una encuesta aplicada a 500 tutores de 100 colegios diferentes. A modo de síntesis:

Main impacts on students who use the ICT are :

Acquisition of knowledge and skills and
• Development as autonomous learners.

Effects relating to knowledge and skill could be divided into: engagement factors (making students more receptive to learning; cognitive factors, making the learning materials more accessible and aiding understanding); and performance factors (producing better outputs and developing skills).

Effects relating to developing maturity as autonomous learners incorporated: the development of self esteem, particularly for students who have had little success in the past; motivation to learn; and autonomy, taking more responsibility for their own learning and learning how to learn.

En primer lugar algo que ya sabemos bien: Los principales impactos de las TIC en el aprendizaje no se ven reflejados, necesariamente, en mejores desempeños académicos (producto de lo limitado que son los instrumentos de evaluación hoy utilizados, falta de cambios curriculares, falta de actualización docente, etc). Sin embargo, hay una serie de “efectos colaterales” que vale la pena revisar. Por “efectos colaterales” entendemos a aquellas habilidades y destrezas que estimulan  las TIC:

autoconfianza, auto-aprendizaje, compromiso, adopción de “otros” conocimientos y habilidades.

Resulta interesante la distinción entre factores de compromiso (engagement) y de desempeño. Generalmente los estudios de este tipo suelen rendir tributo a la infinita potencialidad de las TIC en cuanto al “engagement” y guardan bastante silencio en relación al “desempeño” académico. Temo que ello se debe a que se están utilizando los instrumentos inadecuados para evaluar el impacto.

“Unintentional learning […] different sources claim that up to 70-90% of all learning activity is informal”

De manera complementaria, el trabajo de Jokisalo & Riu (2009)* ofrece ideas que refuerzan el estudio de CEIR. Jokisalo & Riu destacan las potencialidades del aprendizaje informal, un aspecto que parece estratégico cuando se piensa en tecnología y aprendizaje. Aquí algunos extractos:

Aprendizaje fuera del(a) (j)aula: “Individual development through e-learning involves education and training-related activities mainly at home, together with any other technology-enhanced learning activities not necessarily mediated by formal E&T institutions. This territory is characterised by non-formal learning processes and especially by means of informal learning activities”.

Comunidades de práctica: “Learning communities are communities organised by individuals or groups of people to meet, share and learn about a specific subject. The learning taking place is non-formal, in the sense that it is not mediated by a teaching institution. The learning purpose is explicitly perceived and agreed on by the members, although not necessarily leading to formal recognition. Learning taking place in these communities may contribute to the development of skills and competences for the workplace, but also for private and social life”.

Aprendizaje Informal:

  • Learning resulting from daily activities related to work, family or leisure. It is not organised or structured (in terms of objectives, time or learning support). IL is in most cases unintentional from the learner’s perspective. It typically does not lead to certification.” (Tissot 2004).
  • “Informal learning is a natural accompaniment to everyday life. Unlike formal and non-formal learning, informal learning is not necessarily intentional learning, and so may well not be recognised even by individuals themselves as contributing to their knowledge and skills.” European Commission (2000)

Lo que John Seely Brown llama “aprendizaje accidental” en Grown Up Digital (Tapscott, 2008, p.103) es justamente lo que están olvidando los sistemas formales de aprendizaje. Mientras más información recopilamos, más evidente resulta que las TIC han de ser utilizadas principalmente en entornos informales de aprendizaje y han de habitar otros lugares distintos al (a) (j)aula.

Fuente referidas:

*Jokisalo & Riu (2009)“ICT and lifelong learning for a creative and innovative Europe Findings, reflections and proposals from the Learnovation project: Informal learning in the era of Web 2.0”.

Tissot, Philippe (2004). Terminology of vocational training policy: A multilingual glossary for an enlarged Europe. Centre for the Development of Vocational Training. Publications of the European Communities.

European Commission (2000). A Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. SEC(2000) 1832.

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